ျမစ္ဆုံေရကာတာအေၾကာင္း အမွားနဲ႕အမွန္ – – Myitsone Myths and Truths XIII
ေရအားမွလွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအားရယူႏိုင္ရန္ တ႐ုပ္က အာဖရိက ႏိုင္ငံ ေတြကို
ဘယ္လိုကူညိ ေနလဲ ဆိုတာကို တင္ျပ ပါ့မယ္၊
တခ်ိန္က ဥေရာပ ကိုလိုနီနယ္ခ်ဲ႕တို႕ နဲ႕ဂ်ပန္ဖက္ဆစ္တို႕လို
နယ္ခ်ဲ႕သတ္ျဖတ္ဖိႏွိပ္ေနတာ မ်ိဳး မဟုတ္ပါ၊
အေျခခံက ကုန္သယ္ လုပ္ ျပီး ႏိုင္ငံခ်င္း ကုန္ ဖလွယ္လိုတာပါ၊
လမ္းပန္းဆက္သြယ္ ေရး၊လူေနအိမ္ အထပ္တိုက္ေတြ၊ေဆး႐ံုေတြ၊
ဝိုင္းဝန္း တည္ေဆာက္ ေပးတယ္၊ ၎တို႕အတြက္ ေငြေခ်းစိုက္ထုတ္
ရင္းႏွီးေပးတယ္၊ေခတ္မွီ စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရး ပညာ အပါအဝင္ ဆက္လက္ျပီး ကိုယ္ပိုင္ထိန္းသိမ္း
China Wins Africa Friends by Building Dam in Ebola Outbreak
bloomberg.com 2015-9-29 (နံမယ္ေက်ာ္ US စီးပြါးေရးသတင္းစာ)
ငါတို႕ရဲ့စီးပြါးေရး အေျခခံအုတ္ျမစ္ (ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္) ကိုသူတို႕က
လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအား မရွိရင္ ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးေရး လုပ္ငန္း မ ျဖစ္ ထြန္းႏိုင္ ပါ
“This gives us a real basis for our economy. Without power there is no development.“
As workers at Western companies fled West Africa during the world’s worst-ever Ebola outbreak, a state-owned Chinese company carried on. China International Water & Electric Corp. completed the Kaleta dam on budget and a year ahead of schedule in July, ending chronic power shortages in the capital, Conakry. Construction continued even as companies including London-based Rio Tinto Plc and Luxembourg-based ArcelorMittal SA paused projects in the region.
Ebola ပိုးကိုေၾကာက္လို႕ ထြက္ေျပး ၾကတဲ့ အေနာက္ တိုင္း အဖြဲ႕ေတြလို
မဟုတ္ပါ၊ တ႐ုပ္တို႕ကဆက္ေနျပီး ေရကာတာ ကို တႏွစ္ေဆာေအာင္
အျပီးလုပ္ေပးလို႕ တ႐ုပ္ကငါတို႕ရဲ့စီးပြါးကို ကယ္တင္လိုက္တယ္Guinea ႏိုင္ငံ
ေရကာတာ အၾကီးအကဲ Fofana ကဆို
“The Chinese saved us,” Lansana Fofana, 63, said, as he stood on the $526 million hydroelectric dam that China financed and he oversees. For Fofana, the 1,545-meter (5,069-feet) wall is a monument to the positive role China can play in Africa. In other parts of the continent, Chinese companies have been accused of treating workers poorly, building substandard infrastructure and damaging the environment.
“With Western companies, costs would have gone up and they would have walked out as soon as the first case of Ebola hit,” Fofana said as he walked beneath a buzzing pylon toward the barrier’s roaring overflow. “This gives us a real basis for our economy. Without power there is no development.”
ေတာင္အာဖရိက ႏိုင္ငံ ေရကာတာ အၾကီးအကဲ နဲ႕ေတြ႕ဆံုစကားေျပာ ေမးျမန္းျခင္း
OB: In China and elsewhere, many say one way to alleviate environmental pressures is to shift to small-scale hydropower as opposed to large-scale dams. What are your views on that?
အၾကီးစား ေရကာတာ ဆိုးက်ိဳးေပးႏိုင္သေလာက္
အငယ္စား အလတ္ စား ေရကာတာ ေတြ ကလဲ
ေပးႏိုင္တာပါ၊ ဒိထက္ပင္ ဆိုးက်ိဳးေပးႏိုင္တယ္၊
ေရေတြ ေလလြင့္တာ အေငြ႕ပ်ံတာတို႕ ပိုမ်ားလာ၊
အိႏၵိယလဲ က ဒီျပသနာ ကို တိတိက်က် ေထာက္ျပ ႏိုင္
MM: The evidence is that the proliferation of small-scale activity can do as much, and quite often more, damage than large-scale projects. In South Africa, we ban the construction of large numbers of small dams in some areas, because of the water inefficiency that they introduce, because of the additional evaporation. We know that problem has been identified in India as well.
ကြပ္ကဲဘို႕လြန္စြာမွ ခက္ခဲလာျပီး သာမန္(ထုတ္လုပ္မႈ)
စံညႊန္းကိုေတာင္ မ မွီႏိုင္ဘို႕မ်ားတယ္၊ (ထြက္သင့္
သေလာက္ မ ထြက္ပါ)
So I think that “small versus large” is a complete red herring. You need to look then at the impact of a thousand small activities, and they are much more difficult to control and they are much more likely to be sub-optimal.
သြယ္ေရး မ်ိဳးစုံတို႕မွာ အၾကီးsစားေရကာတာ က သာလြန္တယ္ဆိုတာ
က်ေနာ္ကThree Gorges ေရကာတာ ေဆာက္လုပ္ဆဲနဲ႕ေဆာက္ျပီးလို႕လည္ပတ္
I recently visited the Three Gorges. I visited it when it was under construction and I’ve now visited when it was in operation. Quite frankly, I think in terms of scale, in terms of the amount of green energy you’re getting, in terms of the improved transport efficiencies, in terms of flood control, in terms of all sorts of economic benefits, in terms of the local tourism and employment benefits, you can really look at that project and say look at the costs and look at the benefits. And those kinds of costs and benefits would probably not have been achieved in small-scale projects in the same way that they were achieved there.
စီးပြါးေရး၊ သဘာဝဝန္က်င္၊ နဲ႕ လူမႈေရး
မူသံုးမ်ိဳး သုံးတန္ ကို မွ်တစြာလက္ကိုင္ျပဳလာ
ေရ ဆိုတဲ့ သယံဇာတေတြကို အက်ိဳးရွိစြာ စီမံကြပ္ကဲ
သို႕ေသာ္ အျခားႏိုင္ငံ နဲ႕ပူးေပါင္းျပီး ေရကာတာ တည္ေဆာက္
ကူညီတဲ့အခါ က်ေတာ့ သဘာဝ ဝန္းက်င္ ကို သိပ္ အာရုံ
မ စူးစိုက္ မ လြန္ကဲ ေစခ်င္ပါ၊
“Small versus large” is an important discussion to have. But I think it would be more useful to look substantively at those three pillars – the social, the economic and the environmental – and try to make sure that they are balanced. And my impression is that China has made huge strides in 10 years towards rebalancing their water resource management discussion and I would be very sad to see them moving in the direction of too great a focus on environment. Particularly if that’s then going to impact on their partner countries.
I find it interesting, and there is empirical evidence, that China’s re-focus has completely changed the dams and development debate. The anti-dam advocates are now turning most of their attention to China. They are very concerned about China, they are trying to influence it. I think we should be celebrating China’s contribution to African development in particular, even as we warn about the dangers of careless project implementation.
(Mike Muller is a South African water expert, engineer and writer on development issues. He is also commissioner at South Africa’s National Planning Commission and a visiting professor at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg; a member of the Global Water Partnership’s Technical Advisory Committee and an advisor to the UN World Water Assessment Programme. He was previously director general of South Africa’s Department of Water Affairs and Forestry.
Olivia Boyd caught up with him on the sidelines of a water conference in Oxford, where he was speaking about China’s role in African hydropower development).
From The Third Pole.net
China brings dams back to Africa
Chinese investors have broken a boycott on investment in African dams – and loosened the grip of the environment lobby. This is good news for the continent, water expert Mike Muller tells Olivia Boyd.
တ႐ုပ္ အရင္းအႏွီး စိုက္ထုတ္ လို႕ျဖစ္ေစ၊ေဆာက္လုပ္ေပးလို႕
ျဖစ္ေစ ပါဝင္ ကူညီ ေနတဲ့ အာဖရိကတိုက္၂၂ ႏိုင္ငံက ေရကာတာ ဇယား
List of Chinese financed dams in Africa
China, through its Export and Import Bank, Sinohydro, China International Water & Electric Corporation (CWE), China and China National Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Corporation (CWHEC); as well as China National Machinery and Equipment Import and Export Corporation (CMEC); are fuelling the dam boom in Africa. In a number of cases, the construction of dams are endeavoured in areas of high biodiversity without a concomitant Environmental and Social Impact Assessment. Notwithstanding, the following list, indicates the 22 countries in Africa where Chinese companies are financing and constructing dams or have plans to do so.
Cameroon Memve’ ele; Mekin
Central African Republic Boali 3
DRC Zongo II; Banunga; Ivunga; Semuliki,
Equatorial Guinea Djiploho,
Ethiopia Finachaa-Amerti Neshe; Genalle-Dawa III; Gilgel Gibe III; Tezeke; Chemoga Yeda; Gibe IV; Halele Werabesa
Gabon Grand Poubara; Belinga,
Ivory coast Soubre,
Mali Gouina; Taoussa,
Mozambique Mpanda Nkuwa
Nigeria Zungeru; Mambilla; Zamfara,
Republic of Congo Imoulou; Bouenza,
South Sudan Biden,
Sudan Upper Atbara; Merowe; Dal-Kajbar; Roseires,
Uganda Karuma ; Ayago; Isimba,
Zambia Kariba North Bank Ext; Kaufe Gorge Lower; Musonda; Lunza,
Zimbabwe, Kariba south Ext,
Source Brautigam, D. Hwang, J. &Wang, L. 2015. Chinese-Financed Hydropower Projects in Sub- Saharan Africa. Policy Brief. The SAIS China Africa Research Initiative.
Bui Dam in Ghana, Africa
Ghana ကBui ေရကာတာ
SubSahara ဆဟာရ သဲကႏၲရ ေအာက္ ပိုင္း အာဖရိက တိုက္ ေဒသၾကီး သို႕
လွ်ပ္စစ္ စြမ္းအား ၃၀ % ထပ္တိုး လာေအာင္ တ႐ုပ္ ကုမၸဏီေတြက
ၾကီးမားတဲ့ အခန္း ကေန ပါဝင္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ေပး တယ္လို႕ IEA ကမ႓ာ့ စြမ္းအင္ အဖြဲ႕ကဆို
8 July 2016 | By GCR Staff (Global Construction Review)
Chinese companies are playing huge role in bringing electricity to sub-Saharan Africa and can take credit for 30% of new capacity in the region, according to a study published this week by the International Energy Agency (IEA).
While more than 635 million people still live without electricity there, Chinese companies channeling state funds into all different types of power stations will have brought light and power to around 36 million people by 2020.
“African countries have relied heavily on China to support the expansion of their electricity systems, to enable growth and improve living standards”
– Paul Simons, IEA Deputy Executive Director
The sums are vast: the IEA finds that China invested around $13bn between 2010 and 2015 in power projects, as China’s contribution dwarfs that of any other non-African country.
Over half of all power projects are based on renewable sources, of which most are hydropower, the study, Boosting the Power Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa: China’s Involvement, reveals.
အာဖရိကႏိုင္ငံေတြက ဓာတ္ အားရဘို႕အေရး
“African countries have relied heavily on China to support the expansion of their electricity systems, to enable growth and improve living standards,” said Paul Simons, the IEA’s Deputy Executive Director, on the report’s launch.
တ႐ုပ္ေၾကာင့္ လူဦးေရ ၃၆ သန္း လွ်ပ္စစ္မီးအားရလာျပီး
၂၀၂၀ က်ရင္ လူဦးေရ သန္းေပါင္း ၁၂၀ လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအား ရလာ
Between 2010 and 2020, a total of 120 million people will have gained access to grid electricity. Thirty-six million of these, or 30%, will have done so thanks to Chinese contractors. China also provides off-grid power with solar energy kits donated in countries like Rwanda and Comoros.
အၾကီးပိုင္း (အျပာေရာင္ အစိတ္အပိုင္) က ေရအားမွလွ်ပ္စစ္ စြမ္းအား ပါ
Distribution of Chinese projects in power capacity, by sub-region, 2010-20 (IEA)
Benefits flow both ways. China’s involvement in Africa bolsters the internationalisation of Chinese companies, in line with the government’s “Go Out” policy initiated in 1999. Meanwhile, the current economic slowdown in China and overcapacity in various sectors further impels Chinese companies to search for new markets overseas.
There is also a long-term strategy behind China’s powering of Africa. The industrialisation and economic development of the region is seen by Chinese stakeholders as important for eventually bolstering Chinese exports to the region, the IEA says.
This is why the state plays such a large role. Over 90% of Chinese-built power projects in the region are contracted by Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Africa is the largest overseas market for some major Chinese energy infrastructure SOEs, which provide integrated services centred on turnkey projects.
Doing it all
Generally with Chinese government support, Chinese stakeholders provide integrated solutions – power generation capacity plus transmission and distribution – through a combination of Chinese loans, government-driven investment and equity investment.
Headquarters of foreign contractors for greenfield power plants in sub-Saharan Africa, 2010-15
China’s approach to development assistance differs from OECD countries. For example, China is not covered by the Arrangements on Officially Supported Export Credits, which guides OECD countries in export credit financing.
In the 2010-15 period, loans, credits and foreign direct investment from China into the sub-Saharan power sector amounted to around $13bn, around one-fifth (20%) of all investments in the sector. Most of this financing comes from the Export-Import Bank of China.
IEA အရ တ႐ုပ္ရဲ့ေရကာတာ ေဆာက္လုပ္ေရးကုန္က်စားရိတ္ က (သူမ်ားထက္)
ပိုျပီးသက္သာ တယ္၊ ခြၽင္းခ်က္၊ တ႐ုပ္ျပည္မွာေဆာက္တဲ့ေရကာတာ ထက္
ေတာ့ ပိုကုန္က်တယ္ (ခရီးစရိတ္ သယ္ယူပို႕ေဆာင္ခေတြ ပါမွာ)၊
According to the IEA, construction costs of power plants built by Chinese builders are lower overall than in other parts of the globe but higher than those for plants built in China.
လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအား မ ရလို႕ လူဦးေရ သန္းေပါင္း ၆၃၅ (ျမန္မာ ရဲ့ ၁၁ဆေက်ာ္)ရဲ့
ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးေရးကို အျပင္းအထန္ ဟန္႕တားခ်ဳပ္ေႏွာင္ ထားတယ္၊
စက္ရုံလုပ္ငန္း၊က်န္းမာေရး၊ပညာေရး အလုံစုံ တို႕က ပုံမွန္ရမဲ့ လွ်ပ္စစ္ စြမ္းအား
ကို အမွီသဟဲ ျပဳေနတယ္
Over 635 million people live without electricity in the region, which severely constrains economic growth. Manufacturing, healthcare and education all rely on reliable sources of electricity. The IEA also believes the lack of power also holds back the region’s agriculture sector, which remains unmodernised and accounts for 20% of regional GDP and 65% of employment.
Over 90% of Chinese-built power projects are contracted by Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) (IEA)
Demand will only get more acute, according to the IEA. It says sub-Saharan electricity demand is expected to more than triple by 2040, to reach 1,300 terawatt hours (TWh) under current and proposed government policies and measures.
By 2040, demand from industry will double while residential demand will grow by more than five times current levels. At a rate of 6% per year, electricity demand growth will therefore exceed GDP growth throughout the next 25 years to 2040.
Chinese-added generation capacity mix in sub-Saharan Africa, 2010-20. Other renewables includes solar, wind, biomass and waste. (IEA)
On the plus side, it says, sub-Saharan Africa has ample primary energy resources to meet this demand: recoverable oil resources will be sufficient for the next 100 years, coal for over 400 years and gas for 600 years, and renewable energy sources (geothermal, hydro, wind and solar) are abundant.
To explore in more detail, view the report here.
Top Image: The Bui Dam, a 400-megawatt hydroelectric scheme on the Black Volta River in Ghana, part-financed by China and built by Sinohydro (ZSM/Wikimedia Commons)
Gibe III Dam
Africa’s New Friend China Financing $9.3 Billion of Dams for Hydropower When completed in 2013, Gibe III on Ethiopia’s Omo River will be Africa’s tallest dam, a $2.2 billion project .
When completed in 2013, Gibe III on Ethiopia’s Omo River will be Africa’s tallest dam, a $2.2 billion project that conservationists say will deprive birds and hippos of vital habitat. Some 600 miles (965 kilometers) to the north, Sudan is preparing to build the $705 million Kajbar dam on the Nile, which would inundate historic towns and tombs of the Nubian people…
အာဖရိက တိုက္မွာ Ethiopia က အင္အားၾကီးႏိုင္ငံေပၚထြန္းလာျပီ၊
ေရေပါႂကြယ္တဲ့ Ethiopia က လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအားေပါႂကြယ္ လာျပီး
( ေရနံေပါမ်ားတဲ့)Saudi Arabia လို မ ၾကာခင္ ခ်မ္းသာႂကြယ္ဝ ေတာ့မယ္၊
ဂ်ပန္ ဂ်ာမဏီ တ႐ုပ္ အေမရိကန္ ေတြကEthiopia ကို လာျပီး စက္ရုံေတြ
ဘာေၾကာင့္လဲဆိုရင္ က်ေနာ္ တို႕မွာ အေရးၾကီးဆုံး အရာ ႏွစ္ခု
ရွိလို႕၊ ေစ်းေပါတဲ့ လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအား နဲ႕ သက္သာတဲ့ လုပ္အားခ
က်ေနာ္တို႕ အားလုံး ကအလုပ္ရၾကမွာ၊ တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံ ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳး လာတဲ့
ဘယ္သူက ဒီလိုျဖစ္လာေအာင္ စြမ္းေဆာင္ခဲ့သလဲ?
Ethiopia က ေရကာတာၾကီးေတြ မ လုပ္ ရေအာင္ က်ေနာ္ တို႕ရဲ့
ရန္သူေတြက အ ႏွစ္ ၆၀ လိုက္တား ခဲ့တာ……
Comment by Ras Thomas
Hail to China !!!!!
The new super power which will
enpower Africa to share their
resources with those who used
to monopolize it.
Ethiopia the water of Africa will
be rich and African super power
soon. We will be Saudi Arabia of
electric energy in near future.
Japaness,German,Chiness, and the
American companies will came to
Ethiopia to built their factories
in Ethiopia. Because we have two
most important things they are l
looking for cheap energy and cheap
labour. our people will all have
jobs they need. that is the way
China itself was devoloped.
Who made that possible? Ethiopia
building big dams. that was what
our enemies was stopping us for
last sixty years…..
From Ethiopian News
Ehtiopia ကGilgel Gibe III ေရကာတာ ကို ေအာင္ျမင္ စြာ တည္ေဆာက္
Ethiopia successfully completes Gilgel Gibe III dam
Tigrai Online, June 29, 2015
Against all odds the Ethiopian people and government has successfully completed one of the biggest mega projects, the Gilgel Gibe III hydro electric dam is done.
The Gilgel Gibe III dam is the second largest hydro eclectic dam in Ethiopia next to the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam – GERD dam which is half way finished. Gilgel Gibe III is a 610 meter-long or 2,000 feet and 243 meter or 797 feet high roller-compacted concrete dam. It will be producing 1870 Megawatt of energy. This huge dam will add almost 2000 megawatts of power to the national grid instantly doubling available power to the country.
( ျမစ္ဆံု က ၆၀၀၀ မဂၢဝတ္ ထုတ္ႏိုင္တယ္ ဆိုေတာ့ သူတို႕ ထက္ ၃ ဆ ပိုစြမ္း)
The Gilgel Gibe III project like all Ethiopian mega projects had encountered huge opposition by the prophets of poverty and enemies of the Ethiopian people. Groups like the International Rivers, Friends of Lake Turkana, The Oakland Institute, and other groups hell bent to keep the Ethiopian people begging for wheat flour forever campaigned relentlessly to stop the project until the end. These groups fabricated bogus claims of environmental damage to the local area and beyond. Those groups who are actually working for the interest of their western countries accused the Ethiopian government knowingly trying to hurt the people in the Omo valley.
Those foreigners who have absolutely nothing to do with Ethiopia or the people in the local area manufactured false information claiming the project threatens the food security and local economies of the Lower Omo basin people in southwest Ethiopia and along the shores of Kenya’s Lake Turkana, but nothing can be far from the truth.
The truth behind this special interest groups aggressive opposition to Gilgel Gibe III project is not because they care about the environment or the Omo Valley people. It is because they want Ethiopia to remain poor and destitute and the local people light years from civilization walking around naked for their amusement. They want their respective countries to suck our natural resources and row material dry and want to make our country a dumping ground for their toxic junk.
စိတ္ဓာတ္ၾကံ့ခိုင္တဲ့ Ethiopia အစိုးရ နဲ႕ အကင္းပါးတဲ့ Ethiopia လူထု က
Fortunately the Ethiopian people are far smarter than this groups who are trying to stop our miracle transformation and determined to get out of abject poverty. Thanks to the Ethiopian people and the strong Ethiopian government the mega dam is finished and it will be inaugurated very soon.
Ethiopia: Chinese Hydropower Investments by CGGC SEPTEMBER 8, 2009 ￼
Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi state that Ethiopia is welcoming Chinese enterprises to actively participate in Ethiopia’s development of hydropower projects and are welcome to help Ethiopia to make better use of its abundant water resources to generate electricity. Prime Minister Meles, who was co-chairman of the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation in 2006 met this weekend in Ethiopia with visiting Mr. Yang Jixue, Chairman of China Gezhouba Group Corporation (CGGC).
တ႐ုပ္အကူအညီနဲ႕ Zambia က ေရကာတာ ကို စ တင္ တည္ေဆာက္
Zambia launches construction of China-aided hydro-power project
NOVEMBER 30, 2015 FROM XINHUA CHINA GO ABROAD Zambia launched on Nov. 28th the construction of a China-aided major hydro-power project, which will go a long way in boosting the country’s electricity generation capacity. The launch came after the signing of a memorandum of understanding by the two governments for the commencement works on the development of the 750 megawatts Kafue Gorge Lower Hydro-power project last month.
Uganda က Isimba နဲ႕ Karumba ေရကာတာ
၂ ခု စလုံး ကို တ႐ုပ္ ကန္ဟ႐ိုက္တာ ေတြရၾကတယ္
Uganda has awarded a Chinese firm a contract to build a new dam and power plant on the Nile, a senior government official told Reuters on Monday, the second such project to go to China in less than two months. China, as elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, has rapidly expanded its investment in Uganda in recent years, snapping up major government contracts often after extending cheap credit.
The latest 188-megawatt hydro-electric project, the Isimba hydropower dam, would be developed by China International Water and Electric Corporation (CWE) and China’s Export-Import Bank would give Uganda another loan worth $500 million, which would be on concessional terms, Junior Energy Minister Simon D’Ujanga said.
က်ေနာ္တို႕က အတိုးႏွုန္းသက္သာ တဲ့ ေခ်းေငြ ေတြကိုလိုက္ရွာေနတာ၊
တ႐ုပ္ႏိုင္ငံက အဲဒီ ပိုက္ဆံရွိတာ
“We’re looking for cheap money to develop our infrastructure projects and China has that money,” he told Reuters, adding that the memorandum of understanding (MoU) had been signed and work on the dam was expected to start in August.
Last month, Uganda gave China’s Sinohydro Group Ltd a contract for the east African nation’s biggest power project yet, Karuma Hydropower, also on the Nile, at a cost of $1.65 billion, partly financed by a $500 million Chinese loan.