wel26

———–

 
 ရအားမွလွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအားဆိုတာငါ့အတြက္ပါ၊
သင့္အတြက္မဟုတ္ပါ
၂၀၁၄ ဇူလိုင္လ ၁၆ ရက္
 16 July 2014
 ——
vermont1vermont2
ဆီနိတ္လႊတ္ေတာ္အမတ္ Leahy  က အေမရိကန္ Vermont ဗာမြန္႕ျပည္နယ္ကိုကိုယ္စားျပဳပါတယ္၊
ယင္းျပည္နယ္ကသန္႕လဲသန္႕ သက္လဲသက္သာတဲ့ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ကိုအရမ္းကို အမွီသဟဲျပဳရပါတယ္
 ——-
leahy
US Senator Leahy from Vermont represents a state which depends heavily on clean, cheap hydropower. His recent use of the budget bill to deny poor countries an opportunity to develop their hydropower resources has led to indepth discussion across the US. In his blog on the Centre for Global Development’s website, John Briscoe gives his views on the subject.
——
ဆင္းရဲတဲ့ႏိုင္ငံေတြက မိမိတို႕ရဲ့သံယံဇာတ ကိုအသုံးျပဳျပီး ရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ ပ်ိဳးေထာင္ႏိုင္
ဘို႕အခြင့္အလမ္း မ ရႏိုင္ေအာင္ လႊတ္ေတာ္အမတ္ Leahy  က ဘတ္ဂ်က္ ဥပေဒၾကမ္းကို မၾကာခင္
(၂၀၁၄) ကတင္သြင္းခဲ့တယ္
ဟားဗာဒ္ Harvard တကၠသိုလ္ပါေမာကၡ  John Briscoe  က ဒီကိစၥကိုသူ႕ရဲ့  blog ဘာ လုဒ္မွာ ဆြးေႏြးထားတယ္
 —–
 jbriscoe1
One of the great divides between the rich and poor worlds is access to electricity. Consumption of electricity by a standard single-family American refrigerator is ten times the consumption of electricity by the average Ethiopian. An equally great divide is the use of hydropower. In most rich countries over 80% of economically viable hydropower potential is tapped. In Africa the comparable figure is under 5%.

ႏိုင္ငံဆင္းရဲခ်မ္းသာတိုင္းဘို႕ေပၾကိဳးေတြအနက္
မိသားစုသုံးလွ်ပ္စစ္နဲ႕ ႏိုင္ငံသုံး ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ပမာဏ
ေတြပါ
 
အေမရိကန္မိသားစုရဲ့ေရခဲေသတၱာ ကသုံးတဲ့ လွ်ပ္စစ္ဟာ 
Ehtiopian တဦးသုံး လွ်ပ္စစ္ရဲ့  ၁၀ ဆ ရွိတယ္
ခ်မ္းသာႏိုင္ငံက လွ်ပ္စစ္ သံယံဇာတ မွ ၈၀ % ကိုေဖာ္သုံးတယ္၊
အာဖရိက က ၅ % ဘဲ ေဖာ္သုံးႏိုင္တယ္
—-
Many African countries are, accordingly, giving high priority to developing hydropower as a source of cheap, clean energy. But to tap this energy, they need assistance from external private and public partners. Historically the World Bank and other international finance institutions have played a major role. Indeed President Obama’s major initiative with Africa, called Power Africa*, also envisages a major role for hydropower.
 ———

ဒါ ၾကာင့္Africa

ႏိုင္ငံေတြက ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ကိုအရင္ဦးစားေပးျပီးလုပ္ၾကတယ္ 
သန္႕ရွင္းသက္သာတဲ့ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ကိုလိုလားၾကတယ္၊
   (ျမန္မာျပည္ကအခ်ိဳေသာသူေတြလို သူေဌးသားဂိုက္ မ ထုတ္ပါ)
 ——–
Into this picture steps Senator Patrick Leahy of Vermont, the ranking Democrat on the Appropriations Committee. The Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2014 contains a
—-
အမတ္Leahy က အဆင့္ျမင့္ဘတ္ဂ်က္ေငြသုံးစြဲေရးေကာ္မတီဝင္ပါ၊ 
legislative provision authored by Senator Leahy seeking to prohibit the construction of hydroelectric dams in poor countries: “Section 7060(c)(7)(D). The Secretary of the Treasury shall instruct the United States executive director of each international financial institution that it is the policy of the United States to oppose any loan, grant, strategy or policy of such institution to support the construction of any large hydroelectric dam.”
——
ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ထုတ္ေရကာတာၾကီးအတြက္ေခ်းေငြ ေထာက္ပံ့ေၾကး၊
မူဝါဒ ေတြကိုအေမရိကန္အစိုးရေပၚလစီ ကဆန္႕က်င္တဲ့အေလ်ာက္
သက္ဆိုင္ရာကိုအေၾကာင္းၾကားရန္ ညႊန္းၾကားထားတယ္၊ 
——
I come from South Africa, have lived in Mozambique, Bangladesh, India and Brazil and worked for 40 years on development. Time and time again I have seen NGOs and politicians
———–
က်ေနာ္က South Africa  ကပါ  Mozambique, Bangladesh, India, Brazil  ႏိုင္ငံမ်ိဳးစုံမွာ  ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးေရးလုပ္ငန္းေတြကို အႏွစ္ ၄၀ လုပ္ေဆာင္ခဲ့တယ္
ခ်မ္းသာတဲ့ႏိုင္ငံကႏိုင္ငံေရးသမားေတြ (၎တို႕ရဲ့) NGO ေတြက သူတို႕ကိုယ္တိုင္
မ ေလွ်ာက္ခဲ့တဲ့လမ္း မ ေလွ်ာက္လိုတဲ့လမ္းကို ဆင္းရဲတဲ့ႏိုင္ငံေတြကိုေလွ်ာက္ခိုင္းတယ္
———-
in rich countries advocate that the poor follow a path that they, the rich, never have followed, nor are willing to follow. And so I took a look at the reality of hydropower in Senator Leahy’s home state of Vermont.
———
အမတ္ရဲ့ Vermont က်ေတာ့ ဒီလိုမဟုတ္ပါ၊ လွ်ပ္စစ္ထုတ္ ေရကာတာ ၈၄ လုံး ရွိျပီး
ကေနဒါQuebec ျပည္နယ္ ကလဲ ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ားရယူလိုက္ေသးတယ္
 ———-
vermontdam1vermontdam2vermontdam3vermontdam4
On his website Senator Leahy stated: “Vermont has 84 operating hydroelectric plants, with a total generating capacity of 190MW, and also draws a large portion of its energy portfolio from hydropower facilities operated by Hydro Quebec…Senator Leahy believes hydropower is one component of the alternative energy solution.”
At least 28 of Vermont’s dams meet the “large dams” definition used in the Leahy prohibition, as do all of the Quebec dams which supply electricity to Vermont. “Hydro-Québec’s clean, sustainable hydroelectric projects and relative price stability provide exactly the kind of power Vermonters have told us they would like,” says the CEO of Central Vermont’s Public Service.
 vermontdam5
——-
ကမ႓ာ့ဘဏ္မွာ အဆင့္ျမင့္ ေရဘက္ဆိုင္ရာအၾကံေပးအရာရွိ အျဖစ္ ၁၀ ႏွစ္
တာဝန္ထမ္းေဆာင္စဥ္ မွ်တေအာင္ (တဘက္ေစာင္းနင္းမျဖစ္ေအာင္)
ၾကိဳးစားခဲ့ပါတယ္၊ က်ေနာ္ျမင္တာကခပ္ရွင္းရွင္းပါ
——
As the Senior Water Advisor in the World Bank a decade ago, I had worked hard to bring some balance and common sense to this debate, and to incorporate these into the water policy of the Bank. It is clear to me how developing countries will see the stance of Senator Leahy. They will not see many of the inside-the-Beltway subtleties – that this is only a one-year legislative provision; that it expresses the views of one senator and his staff, and not necessarily the administration; that it might be designed to start a conversation, not to end one. My experience suggests that developing countries will see this as follows.
—-
ကိုယ့္အတြက္မူတမ်ိဳးသူ႕အတြက္မူတမ်ိဳး
ကိုယ့္ျပည္နယ္ကိုဘဲဂ႐ုစိုက္ Africa ရဲ့  ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးေရးကိုဂ႐ုမစိုက္
Africa ႏိုင္ငံေတြက တ႐ုပ္၊Brazil BRICS ဘဏ္ ကို ဘဲေခါင္းလွည့္ေနၾကျပီ
First, as with similar efforts in the past, this will be seen as breathtaking hypocrisy. If Senator Leahy is so adamantly against hydropower, let him show his commitment by first turning out the lights of Vermont. Second, it reinforces a prevalent view that US policy towards the developing world is driven by politicians who are driven by extreme single-issue groups at home, and give little attention to the proven instruments – including infrastructure – which lead to growth and poverty reduction. Third, Africans and others are turning and will turn, with great appreciation, to the governments and companies of China and Brazil and potentially to a BRICs Bank**, who understand that electricity is one of the keys to a better life, and who will help Africans build the infrastructure they need for economic growth and poverty reduction .
vermapcomp

(ျမန္မာက ဗာမြန္႕ထက္ ၂၇ ဆ ၾကီးေသာ္လဲဘဲ ဗာမြန္႕ကေရကာၾကီး ၈၄ လုံး
ဆိုေတာ့ ဆရာဦးထြန္းလြင္တို႕က ေရကာတာ ၇ လုံး အားးလုံးရပ္ ဆိုတာကို အမတ္ လီဟိုင္
ဆီအရင္သြားျပီးေမးၾကည့္ဘို႕ေကာင္းတယ္)
Additional thoughts
 ——-
  Obama ရဲ့  Power Africa အရကမ႓ာ့ဘဏ္က Congo  ကို ရကာတာ ၃ လုံးအတြက္  $ ၇၃ သန္း ငြေခ်းမယ္
စည္းကမ္းခ်က္ေတြပါတယ္
——-
It cannot be said that Senator Leahy has the whole of US Congress’ support. Earlier in the year the Electrify Africa Act was approved with the bill specifically stating that the US encourages private sector and international support for the construction of hydroelectric dams in sub-Saharan Africa: as long as the dams are in the US’ national security interests and built following international best practice for environmental and social safeguards.
Then on 20 March the World Bank approved a US$73M grant to the Democratic Republic of Congo for the Inga 3 hydropower project. Commentators say that such highly complex projects need the support of multi-lateral development banks but that a lack of clear US policy is proving to be detrimental to the country’s development interests.

References

The twisted tale of Inga 3 by Michael Igoe and Paul Stephens. 17 April 2014. International Development News. https://www.devex.com/news/the-twisted-tale-of-inga-3-83232
* In June 2013 President Obama announced Power Africa – an initiative to double the number of people with access to power in Sub-Saharan Africa. It aims to achieve this goal by unlocking substantial wind, solar, hydropower, natural gas and geothermal resources in the region to enhance energy security, decrease poverty and advance economic growth.
**The BRICS Development Bank is a proposed multi-lateral development bank to be operated by Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
Author information
John Briscoe is a Professor of Environmental Engineering at Harvard University where he directs the Harvard Water Security Initiative. He also serves on the Centre for Global Development’s Advisory Group.
IWP&DC would like to thank the Centre for Global Development for permission to reproduce John Briscoe’s blog which was originally published online on 6 March 2014. Hydropower for Me but Not for Thee–with Two Postscripts
———
   ဒီေဆာင်းပါးအရ

အေနာက္ႏိုင္ငံမွေရကာတာၾကီးအတြက္ေခ်းေငြရဘို႕မလြယ္ပါ၊

International Rivers တို႕လို NGO ေတြကဘာေၾကာင့္ေအာ္ရတယ္ကိုနဲနဲနားလည္လာတယ္
——-
John Briscoe က Stockholm Water Prize ေရဘက္ဆိုင္ရာ ႏိုဘဲဆုကိုဆြတ္ခူးခဲ့တယ္၊သူမတူေအာင္ကမ႓ာနဲ႕ေဒသဆိုင္ရာေရထိန္းသိမ္းမႈေတြကို
စြမ္းစြမ္းတမံ ပါဝင္ေဆာင္ရြက္ခဲ့တဲ့အတြက္ခ်ီးျမႇင့္တာပါ၊
John Briscoe (July 30, 1948 – November 12, 2014) was a South African-born environmental engineer who was Visiting Professor of the Practice of Environmental Health in the Department of Environmental Health at Harvard School of Public Health. He was known as “Mr. Water” to environmental economists. At Harvard, Briscoe also held appointments at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) as Gordon McKay Professor of the Practice of Environmental Engineering,[1] and at the Harvard Kennedy School. His career focused on efforts on the developing world to successfully manage and preserve water as a precious resource.[2] In early 2014, he received the Stockholm Water Prize – the “Nobel Prize of Water” – for “unparalleled contributions to global and local management of water – contributions covering vast thematic, geographic, and institutional environments-that have improved the lives and livelihoods of millions of people worldwide.”
He spoke English, Afrikaans, Bengali, Portuguese, and Spanish.

About Kyaemon

Kyae Mon has written 658 post in this Website..

Likes to post news and educational items.